Pratarmė: Kultūros industrijos svarba Šiandieninei Lietuvos visuomenei būdingi spartūs politiniai, ekonominiai ir socialiniai pokyčiai. Keičiasi mūsų gyvenimas ir vertybės. Verslumas ir veržlumas tampa sėkmę lemiančiais bruožais, o sugebėjimas įtvirtinti save - kiekvieno asmeniniu uždaviniu. Tačiau kultūros poreikis, gebėjimas ta kultūra didžiuotis ir vertinti ją yra kiekvienos visuomenės gyvybingumo prielaida.2001 metais Lietuvos Respublikos Vyriausybei patvirtinus Lietuvos kultūros politikos nuostatas, kultūros, o nuo 2005 m. ir kūrybinių industrijų plėtra buvo pripažinta vienu iš nacionalinės kultūros politikos prioritetų. Šiandien naujos Europos ir pasaulio kultūros ir ūkio plėtros politikos tendencijos vis labiau akcentuoja įvairių ūkio sričių sąsajas su kūrybiniais verslais, su abipuse kultūros ir industrijos integracija. Būtent todėl šiandien mums svarbu iš naujo pažvelgti į kultūros ir industrijos sąvokas, nuosekliau aptarti naujas šių sričių sąsajas, jų vaidmenį ekonominei ir socialinei regionų bei šalies raidai. Svarbu tai, kad Lietuvos narystė Europos Sąjungoje suteikia daugiau galimybių plėtoti kultūrinius  mainus ir pristatyti Lietuvą pasaulyje. Kultūros, kitų kūrybinių sektorių vadybininkams sudaromos vis palankesnės sąlygos perimti Vakarų šalių patirtį kultūros industrijos ir kūrybinių industrijų srityse. Suprantama, kad kultūros / kūrybinės industrijos apima daug svarbių sąvokų, ypač tokias kaip ekonomika ir kultūros vadyba. Tačiau kultūros industrija reiškia ir naują, globalaus pasaulio diktuojamą ekonomikos ir kultūros ryšį. Tradiciškai šios sritys būdavo jei ne supriešinamos, tai atskirtos. Dar visai neseniai vienoje erdvėje nebuvo įmanoma įsivaizduoti ekonomikos dėsniais grindžiamos tikrovės ir meno kūrinio autonomiškumo idealų. Tiesą sakant, Lietuvoje ir šiandien daugelis verslininkų niekaip nemato meno pasaulio savo interesų srityje, kaip ir daugelis menininkų neįsivaizduoja, kuo jiems galėtų būti naudingas rinkos dėsniais grindžiamas kapitalistinis gamybos, pramogų, reklamos pasaulis.Tačiau reikia pripažinti, kad šiandienos gyvenime kultūra tampa vis svarbesnė ir kaip ekonomikos veiksnys, kuris salygoja patrauklią aplinką kapitalo investicijoms. Taip pat kultūra yra svarbi ir kaip bendruomenę telkiantis dėmuo, ir kaip įvairių socialinių prevencijos programų priemonė.Žinome, kokios palankios salygos mūsų šalyje sudarytos pradedantiems verslo atstovams, juk Lietuvoje veikia daugybė verslo informacijos centrų. Verslo inkubatoriai ūkio subjektams palankiomis sąlygomis nuomoja patalpas, teikia biuro bei verslo valdymo paslaugas, tarpininkauja gaunant finansinę paramą bei diegiant į verslą naujas technologijas ir mokslo naujoves. Vis labiau suvokiant,  kad daugeliu atvejų pasaulyje būtent kultūra skatina ekonomikos ir verslo plėtrą, akivaizdu, kad būtų labai naudinga remti ne tik pradedančius verslininkus bet ir talentingus, tačiau pradinių palankių salygų kūrybiniam verslui plėtoti neturinčius jaunus kūrėjus. Taip būtų sudaromos palankesnės ir sėkmingesnės sąlygos kultūros ir verslo atstovų bendradarbiavimui bei kultūros industrijos plėtrai. Potencialiai tokios galimybės egzistuoja ir Šiaulių miesto verslo inkubatoriuje.Deja, šiandien jokios kryptingos kultūros politikos kultūros industrijų kūrimo linkme Lietuvoje nėra. Pavyzdžiui, Šiauliuose turime tik pavieneS iniciatyvas, kryptingai plėtojančias kultūrinės industrijos galimybes. Tai VšĮ „Pramogų linija", klubai „Gin-Gas", „Juone pastogė", „Max'as", trys privačios galerijos ir, žinoma, visi kiti komerciniai pramogų centrai.Tam, kad mes patys tinkamai suprastume kultūros industrijos reikšmę, kad ji būtų sėkmingai kuriama ir plėtojama, reikia šiuolaikinės kultūros analizės, reikia naujais metodais pagrįstų socialinio gyvenimo kaitos tyrinėjimų, poreikių studijų, reikia suvokti kultūrinių ir meninių vertybių kaitą bei kintančius meno ir menininko identitetus šiuolaikiniame globaliame pasaulyje. Taip gali būti rasta nauja veiklos ir kūrybos niša, kurioje dera ekonomika ir menas, vadyba ir kūryba, aukštoji ir marginalinė kultūros. Kultūros ir kūrybinių industrijų paralelės, kūrybinių industrijų ir verslo abipusė integracija ir perspektyvos, su kūrybinių industrijų raida susiję gyvenimo stiliai ir naujieji identitetai, - tai klausimai, kuriems ir skirtas šis žurnalo numeris.  Summary Contemporary society in Lithuania experiences characteristic features of rapid changes in political, economic and social areas.For that reason today it is important for us to reevaluate our cultural and industrial conceptions.Presently, the industry of culture and creative industries present a new link with the economy and culture of society dictated by globalisation (although up to recent times these two areas have been mostly separated). Therefore it is necessary to take a new look at the interaction between the worlds of business and culture, business and creativity, between business and art values and to understand what benefits are gained for cultural and economic development from such interaction. Unfortunately presently the purpose of developing a cultural or creative industry policy in Lithuania is not clear.Programs to bring together the worlds of business and culture do not exist; not enough support to promote creative business activities in this initial period of development and evolution is shown; and understanding of economic benefits generated by professional arts and festivals for the city growth is weak. To understand ourselves and the significance of cultural industry in the modern world we live in, it is necessary to carry out an up-to-dated analysis of culture basing on new methodological researches of changes in our social life.  Patricija Bielskienė
GENESIS OF AND GUIDELINES FOR CULTURAL / CREATIVE INDUSTRIESPatricija BielskienėSummary In line with the analysis of the development of a consumer society conception the paper reviews negative criticism of the cultural industry researched by Th. W. Adorn, M. Horkheimer, H. Marcuse and the representatives of the Frankfurt School. The conception of a one-dimension individual counteracting all his / her personal creative, revolutionary possibilities that result in his / her transformation into a passive consumer is reviewed in the paper.The paper analyzes cultural industry trends developed by Th. W. Adorn where the cultural industry is determined as manufacturing of goodsthat satisfy the consumer society. Furthermore, functioning of the cultural industry is based on manufacturing and consumption as an integral process meanwhile authentic creative work and heritage remain beyond the domain of the cultural industry, the capitalist system is presented as ideological, the value of liberty is fictitious. With regard to significance of the cultural industry T. Veblen's "fribble class" and later emerged theories of the "abundance society" are presented. Demonstrative consumption has become accessible because of mass consumption, technology development and the world market competitiveness. Consumption is linked with dissimilarity and the process of individualization.Chapter "Production of Capital" analyzes significance of the cultural capital theory for the conception of cultural industries in particular. Difference between the symbolic and cultural capital (G. Mažeikis) arises, the symbolic capital signifies production of various meanings, names and degrees and the power of nominations. The cultural capital signifies production, realization and accumulation of aesthetic values. Accumulation of the cultural capital firstly signifies reproduction of structures, values and norms necessary in social reality but it optionally refers to unambiguous nature of production. Consensus among the profit cultural capital, heritage investigations and education institutions create a multiple production sapidity. Therefore, the terms of existence of the symbolic and cultural capital in the modern society are not unambiguous so far as they were presented in Th. W. Adorn's critics. Referring to universal activities of "Disney" corporation, positive powers of the economic, creative and artistic cultural industry in the modern society are revealed.The cultural industry deals not only with a fragmentary reproduction of works or production of standard works, it deals with the reproduction of authentic works and broadcasting. Forms of elite art on radio, posters, on-line and CD's can be accessible for every individual. The cultural industry competes with mass media and depends on different, not only popular needs and consistent patterns. In general, it is impossible to outline the functioning of the cultural industry unambiguously because the possibility of reproduction criticized by the Frankfurt School gives not only profit but it is also big possibilities of the development of individuals' outlook.In the end of the paper differences between the cultural and creative industries are discussed. The creative industry shapes the product of financial value. Meanwhile the cultural industry's activities cover possibilities for symbolic and cultural capital development.Referring to the insights of a British expert Ch. Smith on the creative industry, the significance of creativity in the economic and cultural field is emphasized in the paper. The key feature of the creative field is that the main condition for economic growth is human beings and their capacities. Thus, the concept of the creative industry points out the activities that emerge from individual's creativity, capacity, talent and an ability to generate material well-being, job places through the creation and use of intellectual property.According to Ch. Smith, successful development of the creative industry is based on the following components: education and training, promotion of creative business centers, intellectual property, financial support for creative business organizations and management of cultural and creative institutions.
CULTURAL POLICY IN LITHUANIA: ANALYSIS OF ITS DESIGNMilda LaužikaitėSummaryChanges in the global environment, restructuring processes of the national economies in Europe, rise of new identity questions and other dynamic factors challenge to review the conceptions and strategies of cultural policies. The issue is especially relevant for Lithuania as its cultural policy is one of the least reformed during the period of transition.The process approach suggests that analysis should be focused on dynamic aspects of the policy. It is an alternative to the structural - functional approach and enables to analyse various aspects ranging from ideological and institutional conditions to conflicts of everyday political practices. This paper aims to present the main concepts of political anthropology and cultural economy so to form a theoretical background and then to analyse the structural dimension of Lithuanian cultural policy focusing on its ideological and institutional aspects. The review of development and main features of cultural policies in Western Europe and the USA is included as the context of Lithuanian situation. Some general conclusions are made as a result of the analysis. The concept of culture is highly politicised due to long experience of imperialistic expansion when culture was used as a mean of ideological control. On the other hand, Lithuanian culture was perceived as the only way to maintain the continuity of the nation, this situation has become a tool for various manipulations by powerful interest groups.At the institutional level a misbalance can be seen between the dynamic and static trends of the process: groups concerned to preserve status quo dominate. In decision making weak arguments and a lack of value - based criteria preval the economic ones (such as consumer sovereignity arguments). Main decision makers do not tend to define priorities and make significant political decisions. As a result the process of cultural policy formation in Lithuania is basically driven by most powerful interest groups which exercise their power on the basis of Soviet legacies.
CREATIVE INDUSTRIES: FROM REVOLUTION OF EVERYDAY LIFE TO THE WORKING FANTASYGintautas MažeikisSummaryThe article presents history of origin of Creative industries in Great Britain and development of ideas of Creative industries in Lithuania. The Lithuanian case of Creative industries is more a process of mimesis of popular management forms of culture. After the restoration of independence of Lithuania culture stayed in the State sector and only small part of theatres, art galleries, museums and folk groups became private. On the other hand, the development of the creative sector - studies of architecture, design, advertising - were not interpreted as culture but as private entrepreneurship. Not enough attention was paid to the interrelation between non commercial art and professional or industrial forms of art. In this situation the development of creative industries in Lithuania is quite problematic because it presupposes a radical change in the subsidy policy and participation of some spheres of culture in the competitive processes of the free market.Cultural policy and culture of economics in Lithuania are quite weak. There is hardy any research carried out in this field. On the other hand, commercial TV channels growth very fast and leisure industry becomes more and more influential every year. All these political, economical, public and media processes influence the necessity of development of Creative industries. History of the development of Creative industries in Great Britain, especially in Newcastle, in the period of 1993-2005 is considered in the article. The problems of identification and analyses of Creative industries are discussed. For the purposes of analysis of creative industries, the methods of SIC (Standard Industrial Classification) and SOC (Standard Occupation Classification) analysis were used in the article. The next method for the analysis or creative industries was cluster analysis. Actually, clusters are the?? form of organization, interpenetration of local economy and method of analysis at the same time. Cluster organization and stimulation of local small and medium businesses are a new form of organization of local economical activity. However, creative industries give the energy and life for such clusters. A very important topic for the discussions on the prospects of Arts Entrepreneurs is discussions about principles of creative destruction, paranoid competition and creativity, art and public space. J. Schumpetter's ideas on creative industries and A. Groves' "Only paranoid survive" are discussed in the article. However, art is a very public occupation and always has a political parameter. In this case the relation between creative industries and modern/post-modern politics looks quite problematic. The idea of protest laboratories is interpreted here. M. Horkheimer, Th. Adoerno, H. Marcuse, R. Vanengeim, G. Debord criticized cultural industries as a centre of ideological propaganda, as a manufactory of wrong consciousness, as industries of alienation. The situation is quite different in the case of the daughter of culture industries - creative industries. First of all, the growing creativity and diversity of society, free market and strong competition, development of small enterprises are the best instrument for social inclusion and elimination of social and personal alienation.One of the most influential elements of development of creative industries is "Fantasy lands" and legends. Different cases of development of the most popular parks are analysed in the article. These are: Disneyland, Fantasy land, Euro land in different countries of the world. Managers of the project "Harry Potter" (by the novel of Rolings) and "Star Wars" (producer of movies Lucas) try to create analogous parks and artificial cities, castles, empire of toys and computer games. All of them support their business by legends and stories that are a basis for variety of toys, games, books, brands, and emblems.